APISINUM - Active Principle
The active principle of all our products is APISINUM or APITOXIN, which are the names by which the poison produced by bees females (queens or workers), resulting from the abdominal gland secretion is known.
Bee venom is a very complex mixture that essentially consists of proteins (50%) and is still incompletely scanned (158/4).
Its composition depends on four factors:
● the nectar collected by the bee
● the pollen consumed
● its age
● its kind
Among its components, melittin is a hemolytic peptide representing 40% to 50% of the dry weight of the venom. Its molecular weight (MW) totals 2,840. It is responsible for most of the pain and shock states. It Exerts a detergent effect which can directly produce lysis of red blood cells and synergizes the effect of phospholipase A2. In itself, melittin is little allergenic and causes a slight increase in the rate of specific IgE antibodies in 25% to 50% of allergic subjects.
Apamin, with MW of 2.036, is present in a proportion of 2% to 3% of the poison weight. Ii is an inflammatory, neurotoxic and central nervous system exciter.
The peptide 401 (or MCD peptide for mast cell degranulating peptide, which releases histamine from mast cells), is also between 2% and 3% of the venom. With a MW of 2,588, has an anti-inflammatory effect.
The adolapin (1% of poison, with MW of 11.500) is anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic.
Venom contains also enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (with MW of 19,000 is 10% to 12% of the venom). Along with hyaluronidase, which depolymerizes hialuronidic acid, makes tissues more permeable, which is particularly important in rheumatic diseases. Hyaluronidase is a powerful allergen.
Bee venom also contains phospholipids, at 4% to 5%. Carbohydrates represent less than 2% of its weight.
Finally, catecholamines (particularly noradrenaline), dopamine and histamine are the poison's active amines. However, the antiinflammatory properties (increased cortisol) of apamin directed against histamine perhaps explain that the person quickly feels better, shortly after the bite (355/25).